Some children that have arthritis have juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Joint swelling (inflammation) and stiffness are symptoms of arthritis. JIA is a type of arthritis that strikes a youngster who is 16 years old or younger for at least six weeks.
Children frequently outgrow JIA, unlike adult rheumatoid arthritis, which is persistent (chronic) and lasts a lifetime. But in a developing youngster, the condition can impact bone development.
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: What is it?
There are various JIA categories:
- JIA with systemic onset: This type affects one or more joints. A skin rash and a high fever are frequent symptoms. It may also result in inflammation of internal organs such as the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and heart. It is the least prevalent kind. It affects 1 in 10 and 1 in 7 kids with JIA.
- Oligoarticular JIA: In the initial six months, this disease affects 1 to 4 joints. This disease is referred to as chronic if, after six months, no further joints are damaged. After six months, it is referred to as expanded if more joints are afflicted.
- Multi-articular JIA: In the first six months of the illness, this variety affects five or more joints. Rheumatoid factor (RF) blood testing will reveal if this kind is RF-positive or RF-negative.
- JIA caused by enthesitis: A youngster with this disease also suffers enthesitis and arthritis. The tissue where a bone meets a tendon or ligament swells in this condition. The feet, knees, and hips are frequently impacted.
- Psoriatic arthritis: A child with this kind of arthritis may also develop psoriasis, a red, scaly skin condition. A youngster may also have two or more of the following in addition to arthritis:
- A finger or toe infection
- Fingernail ridges or pits
What Causes Adolescent Idiopathic Arthritis?
JIA is an autoimmune condition, just like adult rheumatoid arthritis. In other words, the body’s immune system targets its own healthy cells and tissues. Various factors bring on JIA. Genes and the environment are two of these. This indicates that the illness can run in families but can also be brought on by particular exposures.
JIA has been connected to the HLA antigen DR4 gene. This antigen may increase the likelihood that a person may develop the illness.
How Does Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Manifest?
Episodes may cause symptoms to manifest (flare-ups). They could also be continuing (chronic). The symptoms can differ for every kid.
Some signs could be:
- Swollen, stiff, and painful joints in the knees, hands, feet, ankles, shoulders, elbows, or other joints, often in the morning or after a nap.
- Eye irritation
- Redness and warmth in a joint
- Reduced capacity to move one or more joints
- Reduced appetite, inadequate weight gain, and sluggish growth
- A rash and a high fever (in systemic JIA)
- Enlarged lymph nodes (in systemic JIA)
These signs may resemble those of other illnesses. Make sure your youngster sees their healthcare practitioner for a diagnosis.
How is Idiopathic Arthritis in Children Diagnosed?
JIA diagnosis could be challenging. A single test cannot verify the disease. The medical professional caring for your child will